PURE ENCAPSULATIONS - Vitamin A + Carotenoids - 90 Count - NPN: 80077472 -- Vitamin A with lutein, zeaxanthin, and astaxanthin Helps to maintain eyesight, skin, membranes and immune function Provides antioxidants for the maintenance of good eye healthVitamin A is essential to the healthy functioning of a number of biological processes, including vision, the integrity of mucosal and epithelial surfaces, and the body's immune defence system. While many individuals are able to convert provitamin A carotenoids, like beta carotene, into active vitamin A, recent research has revealed that genetic variations can limit the ease of this conversion for some. Genetic variations in the enzyme BCMO1 (-Carotene 15,15-monooxygenase 1) can decrease the conversion efficacy of carotenoids into retinal by up to 69%. Known as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), these common variations can be bypassed with dietary retinol (vitamin A). Since variations in the BCMO1 gene have also been associated with macular pigment density, this formula includes a blend of lutein, zeaxanthin and astaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin, the two carotenoids found in macular pigment, are antioxidants that help to maintain good eye health. Astaxanthin further supports antioxidant defences by protecting the phospholipid membranes of cells from oxidative damage.